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Advanced Water Purification: The Secrets of Chlorine Dioxide


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Explore the cutting-edge water treatment solutions by 1ness Products, where we harness the robust capabilities of Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2). Our specially formulated two-part kits are designed to ensure not only safety but superior efficacy in purifying water, making them indispensable in both emergency preparedness and outdoor adventures. Delve into the science behind our unique formulations and discover how they offer a more effective alternative to traditional water treatment methods.

The Science of Chlorine Dioxide:

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a potent oxidizer used widely for its ability to eliminate bacteria, viruses, and odor-causing compounds in water without leaving harmful residues. This makes it an ideal choice for both potable water treatment and various industrial applications.

1ness Product Formulation:

Part A: Sodium Chlorite Solution (28%)

Sodium Chlorite Solution Preparation:

  • Measurement: Sodium chlorite is accurately weighed to maintain a precise 28% concentration. The specific weight used, typically around 4,403 grams for a standard kit volume, ensures the consistency and potency of the final solution.
  • Dissolution: The measured sodium chlorite is dissolved in a predefined volume of distilled water, in this case, 11,356 ml. The use of distilled water ensures that there are no impurities that could interfere with the chemical’s reactive properties.
  • Mixing: The solution must be stirred thoroughly to ensure that the sodium chlorite is completely dissolved. This step is crucial for the homogeneity of the solution, which impacts the efficacy and stability of the product.

Stabilization and Storage:

  • Stabilizers might be added to prevent the decomposition of sodium chlorite when stored over long periods. These stabilizers help maintain the reactive qualities of the solution until activation.
  • Packaging: The solution is stored in UV-resistant and chemical-resistant containers to protect the integrity of the solution against light and material degradation.
  • Safety Measures: Proper labeling and safety data are provided on the packaging to ensure safe handling and storage by the end-users.

Part B: Hydrochloric Acid Solution (4%) / Citric Acid Solution (50%)

Activator Solutions:

  • Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Solution (4%): This solution is prepared by diluting 37% concentrated hydrochloric acid with distilled water to achieve a 4% concentration. The acid acts as a potent activator for sodium chlorite, initiating the release of chlorine dioxide upon mixing.
    • Preparation: Approximately 1,336 ml of 37% hydrochloric acid is carefully measured and then mixed with about 11,025 ml of distilled water to achieve the desired dilution.
    • Safety Protocols: Hydrochloric acid is highly corrosive, requiring careful handling, appropriate safety gear, and specific storage conditions to prevent accidents and maintain product integrity.
  • Citric Acid Solution (50%): An alternative activator, citric acid, is used in a similar capacity to hydrochloric acid but creates a slightly different reactive profile, which can be preferable in certain applications.
    • Preparation: A substantial amount, approximately 11,339.8 grams of citric acid, is dissolved in distilled water to form a 50% solution by weight.
    • Characteristics: Citric acid is generally considered safer to handle than hydrochloric acid and provides certain environmental benefits, such as being a naturally occurring organic acid.

Activation and Reaction:

  • Process: When either hydrochloric acid or citric acid is mixed with the sodium chlorite solution, a controlled chemical reaction occurs, releasing chlorine dioxide gas. This reaction is highly efficient and yields a potent disinfectant and oxidizer in the form of chlorine dioxide.
  • Control: The reaction rate and the amount of chlorine dioxide produced can be precisely controlled by adjusting the ratio of sodium chlorite to acid, the drop count, and the reaction environment (temperature, containment, etc.).

Application and Safety:

  • End-Use Dilution: For safe application, especially in drinking water treatment, the resultant chlorine dioxide must be diluted according to guidelines to achieve a concentration that is effective yet safe for consumption, typically around 0.348 ppm.
  • Compliance and Testing: The final product and its application are compliant with EPA guidelines, and regular batch testing ensures each kit meets stringent safety and efficacy standards.

Dilution and Safety:

Following the reaction, the solution is diluted to a safe concentration suitable for drinking water:

  • For Drinking Water Treatment: The mixed solution is diluted to achieve a chlorine dioxide concentration of about 0.348 ppm, well below the EPA’s recommended maximum of 0.8 ppm.

Quality Control Testing:

Each batch of both the Sodium Chlorite Solution and the Acid Activator (whether Hydrochloric Acid or Citric Acid) is subjected to a rigorous quality control (QC) regimen to ensure product safety, consistency, and efficacy.

1. Filtration Process:

  • Purpose: To remove any particulate matter that might have been introduced during the manufacturing process. This ensures the clarity and purity of the solution.
  • Method: Using a 0.45 µm pore size filter, which is a standard in the industry for ensuring sterility in solutions that must be free of bacteria and other contaminants.

2. Titration Tests:

  • Objective: To confirm the concentration of the active ingredients (sodium chlorite and acid) within the solutions. This is crucial for ensuring that the solutions meet the specified strength necessary to effectively produce chlorine dioxide when activated.
  • Procedure: A predetermined amount of the solution is titrated with a standard reagent to measure the concentration of the chemical. The endpoint of the titration provides a precise measure of the chemical’s concentration in the solution.

3. Concentration Verification:

  • Purpose: To ensure that each batch of solution meets the pre-defined concentration criteria essential for effective and safe product performance.
  • Method: Using spectrophotometric analysis, which involves measuring the absorbance of the solution at a specific wavelength to verify the concentration. This method is highly accurate and provides validation of the solution’s consistency.


Once the solutions pass all QC tests, they move into the packaging phase, which is designed to preserve the integrity and ensure the safe handling of the product.

1. Material Selection:

  • Containers: Made from materials that are resistant to the corrosive nature of the solutions, such as certain plastics or coated glass, ensuring long-term storage without degradation.
  • Seals and Caps: Specifically chosen to prevent leaks and ensure that the product remains sealed under a variety of environmental conditions.

2. Labeling:

  • Safety Instructions: Clearly printed labels with detailed safety instructions, handling precautions, and first aid measures in case of accidental exposure.
  • Usage Instructions: Step-by-step instructions on how to safely mix and use the chemicals for water treatment, including precise dilution ratios.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Labels include all necessary regulatory compliance marks, such as EPA registration numbers and symbols indicating the nature of the contents (corrosive, oxidizer).

3. Final Inspection and Approval:

  • Quality Check: Each packaged unit is inspected to ensure it meets all company and regulatory standards before it is approved for shipment.
  • Documentation: Accompanying each batch is documentation that verifies its compliance with quality standards, providing traceability and accountability.

4. Storage Recommendations:

  • Guidelines: Packaged products are stored in a controlled environment that shields them from direct sunlight, extreme temperatures, and moisture, all of which could affect the product’s effectiveness.
  • Shelf Life Monitoring: Regular checks are conducted to ensure products remain within their shelf life and continue to meet quality standards.

By adhering to these stringent procedures, 1ness Products ensures that each kit delivered to the consumer is of the highest quality, ready to provide safe and effective water treatment wherever needed. This level of detail in the quality control and packaging processes underscores the company’s commitment to excellence and safety in all its products.

Environmental Commitment:

1ness Products is dedicated to sustainability. Our solutions are designed to be environmentally friendly, reducing potential waste and promoting safe water treatment practices.

Explore our innovative products at and experience the next level of water purification technology. Perfect for outdoor enthusiasts, emergency preparedness, or anyone needing reliable, safe drinking water.

With 1ness Products, you’re choosing a trusted partner in water treatment. Our scientifically backed, carefully formulated chlorine dioxide solutions offer both effectiveness and peace of mind, ensuring that you have access to clean and safe water wherever you are.

This article aims to educate and inform customers about the meticulous processes behind 1ness Products, highlighting the scientific basis and practical applications of our water treatment solutions, thereby promoting our brand’s commitment to quality and safety.

Relavant Information

  1. EPA’s Chlorine Dioxide Page:
    • Link: EPA on Chlorine Dioxide
    • Description: Provides comprehensive details on the regulatory status and approved uses of Chlorine Dioxide as a disinfectant, making it a valuable resource for readers interested in safety standards and applications.
  2. American Chemistry Council’s Profile on Chlorine Dioxide:
    • Link: American Chemistry Council – Chlorine Dioxide
    • Description: Offers insights into the chemical properties, safety data, and usage scenarios for Chlorine Dioxide, helping readers understand its role in water treatment and other industrial applications.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – Water Disinfection:
    • Link: CDC Water Treatment Methods
    • Description: Discusses various methods for water disinfection, including Chlorine Dioxide, providing a governmental perspective on effective water treatment practices.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on Drinking Water Quality:
    • Link: WHO Drinking Water Quality
    • Description: Includes global guidelines on water quality and the safe use of chemical agents like Chlorine Dioxide to treat drinking water, which could be highly informative for readers concerned about global standards and health implications.
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